The subject of Science plays an important role in developing well-defined abilities in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains in children. It augments the spirit of enquiry, creativity, objectivity and aesthetic sensibility.
Upper primary stage demands that a number of opportunities should be provided to the students to engage them with the processes of Science like observing, recording observations, drawing, tabulation, plotting graphs, etc., whereas the secondary stage also expects abstraction and quantitative reasoning to occupy a more central place in the teaching and learning of Science. Thus, the idea of atoms and molecules being the building blocks of matter makes its appearance, as does Newton’s law of gravitation.
The present syllabus has been designed around seven broad themes viz. Food; Materials; The World of The Living; How Things Work; Moving Things, People and Ideas; Natural Phenomenon and Natural Resources. Special care has been taken to avoid temptation of adding too many concepts than can be comfortably learnt in the given time frame. No attempt has been made to be comprehensive.
At this stage, while science is still a common subject, the disciplines of Physics, Chemistry and Biology begin to emerge. The students should be exposed to experiences based on hands on activities as well as modes of reasoning that are typical of the subject.
1.There will be an Annual examination based on entire syllabus.
2.The annual examination will be of 80 marks and 20 marks shall be for Internal Assessment.
3.The components of Internal Assessment would be:
a. Periodic Assessment of 10 marks that would include:
•For 5 marks- Three periodic tests conducted by the school. Average of the best two tests to be taken. This will have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
•For 5 marks- Diverse methods of assessment as per the need of the class dynamics and curriculum transaction. These may include- short tests, oral test, quiz, concept map, etc. This will also have a weightage of 05 marks towards the final result.
b.Practical / Laboratory work should be done throughout the year and the student should maintain record of the same. Practical Assessment should be continuous. There will be weightage of 5 marks towards the final result. All practicals listed in the syllabus must be completed.
c.Portfolio to be prepared by the student- This would include classwork, other sample of student work, self-assessment and peer-assessment. This will carry a weightage of 5 marks towards the final results.
COURSE STRUCTURE: CLASS X
|I||Chemical Substances-Nature and Behaviour||25||55|
|II||World of Living||23||50|
|IV||Effects of Current||13||32|
|Theme : Materials||(55 Periods)|
|Unit I: Chemical Substances – Nature and Behaviour|
Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of
a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation and reduction.
Acids, bases and salts: Their definitions in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, concept of pH scale (Definition relating to logarithm not required), importance of pH in everyday life; preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris.
Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.
Carbon compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds. Versatile nature of carbon. Homologous series. Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes), difference
between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Chemical properties of carbon compounds (combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reaction). Ethanol and Ethanoic acid (only properties and uses), soaps and detergents.
Periodic classification of elements: Need for classification, early attempts at classification of elements (Dobereiner’s Triads, Newland’s Law of Octaves, Mendeleev’s Periodic Table), Modern periodic table, gradation in properties, valency, atomic number, metallic and non-metallic properties.
|Theme: The World of the Living||(50 Periods)|
|Unit II: World of Living|
Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.
Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants;
Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system;
Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.
Reproduction: Reproduction in animals and plants (asexual and sexual) reproductive health-need and methods of family planning. Safe sex vs HIV/AIDS. Child bearing and women’s health.
Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution- Laws for inheritance of traits:
Sex determination: brief introduction; Basic concepts of evolution.
|Theme : Natural Phenomena||(23 Periods)|
|Unit III: Natural Phenomena|
Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, centre of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required), magnification.
Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.
Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula (Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.
Functioning of a lens in human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life.
|Theme: How Things Work||(32 Periods)|
|Unit IV: Effects of Current|
Electric current, potential difference and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.
Magnetic effects of current : Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Electric Motor, Electromagnetic induction. Induced potential difference, Induced current. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Electric Generator, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.
|Theme: Natural Resources||(20 Periods)|
|Unit V: Natural Resources|
Sources of energy: Different forms of energy, conventional and non-conventional
sources of energy: Fossil fuels, solar energy; biogas; wind, water and tidal energy; Nuclear energy. Renewable versus non-renewable sources of Energy.
Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances. Management of natural resources: Conservation and judicious use of natural resources. Forest and wild life; Coal and Petroleum conservation. Examples of people’s participation for conservation of natural resources. Big dams: advantages and limitations; alternatives, if any. Water harvesting. Sustainability of natural resources.
Practical should be conducted alongside the concepts taught in theory classes
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
1.A. Finding the pH of the following samples by using pH paper/universal indicator:
(i)Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
(ii)Dilute NaOH solution
(iii)Dilute Ethanoic Acid solution
(vi)Dilute Hydrogen Carbonate solution
B.Studying the properties of acids and bases (HCl & NaOH) on the basis of their reaction with:
a)Litmus solution (Blue/Red)
c)Solid sodium carbonate
2.Performing and observing the following reactions and classifying them into:
D.Double displacement reaction
(i)Action of water on quicklime
(ii)Action of heat on ferrous sulphate crystals
(iii)Iron nails kept in copper sulphate solution
(iv)Reaction between sodium sulphate and barium chloride solutions
3.Observing the action of Zn, Fe, Cu and Al metals on the following salt solutions:
Arranging Zn, Fe, Cu and Al (metals) in the decreasing order of reactivity based on the above result.
4. Studying the dependence of potential difference (V) across a resistor on the current (I)
passing through it and determine its resistance. Also plotting a graph between V and I.
5.Determination of the equivalent resistance of two resistors when connected in series and parallel.
6.Preparing a temporary mount of a leaf peel to show stomata.
7Experimentally show that carbon dioxide is given out during respiration.
8Study of the following properties of acetic acid (ethanoic acid):
ii)solubility in water
iii)effect on litmus
iv)reaction with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
9Study of the comparative cleaning capacity of a sample of soap in soft and hard water.
10Determination of the focal length of:
by obtaining the image of a distant object.
11Tracing the path of a ray of light passing through a rectangular glass slab for different angles of incidence. Measure the angle of incidence, angle of refraction, angle of emergence and interpret the result.
12Studying (a) binary fission in Amoeba, and (b) budding in yeast and Hydra with the help of prepared slides.
13Tracing the path of the rays of light through a glass prism.
14Finding the image distance for varying object distances in case of a convex lens and drawing corresponding ray diagrams to show the nature of image formed.
15Identification of the different parts of an embryo of a dicot seed (Pea, gram or red kidney bean).